Here bellow I present some extracts of the book “Bessarabia. Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea”
by Charles Upson Clark; Dodd, Mead&Co; New-York, 1927 - the text belongs to University of Washington, the full source and all the rights are here

[…] the Diet[Sfatul Țării, n.r.] was mainly appointive, and would not be considered a duly representative body in normal times in any western country.

[…] Local Bolshevist committees now arose all over Bessarabia, disregarding the Diet, whose lack of funds and of armed support made it more impotent every day.

[…] “The news that Roumanian troops had been asked for, roused great resentment among those who still clung to the hope of a Bessarabian state within the Russian Federated Republic. President Inculetz of the Diet, and President Erhan of the Council of Directors General, telegraphed, under date of Jan. 6, 1918: “Jassy, Roumanian Government. We protest against the introduction of Roumanian armies into the territory of the Moldavian Republic. We demand categorically the immediate cessation of shipments of troops, and the prompt recall of those troops already over the border. The introduction of Roumanian troops into Bessarabia threatens us with the horrors of civil war, which has already begun. The Russian troops must be allowed to pass freely without any hindrance.” The Bolshevist Soviet of Kishineff, in its indignation at the calling for Roumanian troops, put a price on the heads of the Moldavian Directors-Cristi, Pelivan and Codreanu-whom it held responsible for this action, and endeavored to dispossess the Diet of all power. Disorder increased; four pro-Bolshevist members of the Diet were murdered-Pantir, Prakhnitzky, Tchumatchenko and Grinfeld.”

President Inculetz, in introducing him, reminded the deputies through what a crisis they were passing, and emphasized the assurance given him, that the Roumanian troops were in Bessarabia solely for the preservation of order and the safeguarding of the railway communications and army supplies and munitions. Gen. Broshteanu, in his address, bade his hearers banish any fears they might have of losing their newly won liberties. “I am bound to declare to you,” he said, “that Roumania is herself in too difficult a situation to have any thoughts of conflict or conquest.” Our .only purpose, he went on, is to guard munitions, communications and the railways; but we have also brought you security. In every town through which we have passed, I have been told: the arrival of your army has given us the first restful night’s sleep we have had in months. We of the Roumanian Army hope that under our protection you will proceed to develop your Republic as you see fit. We do not wish to interfere.

Ciugureanu, the new President of the Council of Directors, had already voiced the sentiments of many of his colleagues, in the debates of Jan. 16 : “From the moment I first began to think and to form political convictions, I have belonged to the Social Revolutionary Party, and have looked upon national problems from that point of view, which I consider to be that of a broad federal autonomy. I have spent my life in Russia, I carried on my studies in Russia, nor have I broken off my relations with Russia. We were all of us brought up on the Russian classics, we value them highly, and in consequence we have a solely Russian viewpoint. But how can we speak of a Russian viewpoint today? It is painful to say it, but it is the fact-Russia exists no longer, Russia is falling apart, and the process keeps accentuating itself. The only viewpoint possible today seems to me a Moldavian-Bessarabian. We must think only of ourselves, and how to help ourselves . . . . Yesterday the Roumanian Army arrived; it has created peace and order, but it is going to stay here only so long as its interests lead it to stay; as soon as those interests are satisfied and it leaves, anarchy will begin. In view of this we must reorganize our army.”

[…] Had there been a, Russian middle class in Bessarabia of any political training, or even a Russian peasantry, Bessarabia would today be as Russian as Podolia or Cherson; the Roumanian military occupation would have been merely an episode of a few weeks or months. But the inarticulate Moldavian peasants discovered kinship in the Roumanian soldiers whose coming they had been led to fear; the Jews, who constitute the great majority of the business classes, found in them saviors from the pogroms then raging in the Ukraine; the boyars had little choice, after all; in Russia proper they would have lost their lives as well as their lands; and they soon discovered that in Roumania itself their fellow-boyars were having to submit to the same inexorable expropriation. Thus events marched rapidly and inevitably toward annexation.

[…late in 1918.] The Roumanians received also at this time a very significant document, presented by a commission of former high officials in Bessarabian public life0-P. Sinadino, former member of the Imperial Duma and Mayor of Kishineff, V. Anghel, ex-president of the Orhei Zemstvo, M. Glavce, ex-president of the Kishineff Zemstvo, D. Semogradoff, ex-president of the provincial Zemstvo, and many others of distinction in the province. This memorial states:

“We have considered that it would be well to have an accurate resume, supported by data, to make known the real political and agrarian situation in Bessarabia, for only in this way can it be seen how well founded is the view of those who by virtue of their intellectual, cultural, moral and material situation have the right and duty of defending Bessarabia against the attacks of those who are eager to take advantage of its disorganized condition, and are trying to secure personal advantages, to the detriment of the country’s present and future well-being. As will be seen, the present administration and the so-called Provincial Diet are an adventitious creation of adventitious politicians and adventurers, who, profiting by the Bolshevist revolt (for MM. Erhan and Inculetz came from Petrograd to Kishineff as Bolshevist delegates), have proclaimed an independent republic and have seized control of the situation, promising the masses the confiscation of estates and property, to be turned over to them without any compensation, the destruction of the bourgeoisie, and the grant of an anarchic liberty, without respect for the taws, rights and lives of their fellow-citizens.

The Roumanian Army, alarmed by this revolution, created by these politicians under these circumstances, has intervened and calmed the disorders which had arisen. The administration, which at the beginning was desirous of opposing the Roumanian Army, seeing the impossibility of this, changed its attitude and has been trying to make it appear that it received the coming of the Roumanian Army with pleasure; but beneath the surface it continues to conduct a revolutionary campaign, and is even trying to make the Roumanian Army seem opposed to the fulfilment of its promises, viz., the distribution to the peasants of the boyars’ property without compensation. These machinations are however preparing future disorder, and constitute a danger not only for Bessarabia but also for the Roumanian Army, exposed to this dissolving medium. The present administration is doing nothing but live by makeshifts day to day without the establishment of any organization. This state of affairs cannot last long. It endangers both the future of Bessarabia and its tendency toward union with Roumania. It is impossible for an administration to last which has as its goal disorder, illegality and arbitrariness.

We therefore beg, on the basis of what will be shown later, that our protest may seem justified, and that Roumania (with which country we, without any reservation, desire to be united) may give us speedily support, counsel, and moral and material assistance, to do away with a revolutionary status organized by a bogus administration and a bogus Diet.”

[…] On March 20, Inculetz and Ciugureanu visited Jassy, and found that the new Roumanian ministry, under Marghiloman, was determined to sign a peace with the Central Powers at once, and felt that annexation to Roumania was the only way of saving Bessarabia from being dismembered. Marghiloman informed them that he was going to accept the petitions from Baltz and Soroca, and the manifesto signed by Sinadino and his associates, but that he hoped that the Diet would take similar action. Ciugureanu was strongly in favor of this course; Inculetz became convinced of its wisdom only after consultation with the French Ambassador and other dignitaries at Jassy. On March 23rd, Constantine Stere, the Bessarabian editor of the pro-German paper Lumina in Bucharest, joined Ciugureanu and Inculetz in their return to Kishineff to lay the matter before the Diet; and on the 26th, Premier Marghiloman himself arrived.

[…] When brought before the Diet, this resolution was promptly accepted by the leader of the Moldavian Bloc; Tziganco, representative of the Peasants’ Soviet, declared that his group would refrain from voting, since they considered this a matter for a Constitutional Convention, and furthermore felt that the only admissible terms for union with Roumania would be in a federation. von Loesch, the German representative, stated that his group also would abstain from voting, since they had no authorization to take any such step; they would call a congress of Bessarabian Germans, and bring the matter before them. As a matter of fact, this Congress was soon held, under the chairmanship of Rev. Dr. Haase, later a representative in the Roumanian Parliament, and the union with Roumania was sanctioned. The Bulgarian representative, Misircoff, stated that he would refrain from voting, since he also felt that this was a matter for a Constitutional Convention to decide; and the same declaration was made in the name of the Ukrainian members. The Polish leader, Dudkevitch (Dutkiewicz) said (in Russian): “It is very hard for me, gentlemen, on this great day, an occasion without a peer, it is very hard for me to talk in the language of the people who for so many years have oppressed the spirit of the Roumanian people of Bessarabia, as they have oppressed the Poles. I should like to speak in my own language, Polish, but you gentlemen would not understand it; I should like to speak in your language, Roumanian, but I do not know it. In the name of the Polish nationality I support the project of union as the Moldavians propose it.” The Russian leader, Greculoff, felt, like the Bulgarian, that a Constitutional Convention should first be held. This desire for a convention was partly genuine, partly a move for delay, to preserve independence or to bring about union with Soviet Russia.

After a brief recess, the representatives of the Peasants’ Soviet members announce that after consultation they have decided to support the project of union as outlined in the resolution. The President calls for a vote; all but 13 members of the Diet are present. The resolution is adopted by a vote of 86 for, 3 against, 36 present but refraining from voting, for the reasons given above; see pp. 151-7 for the list. Bessarabia, by the vote of its sole constituted authority, however makeshift, is now a part of Roumania.

[…] I have marked with an asterisk the names of those who were in the Diet from the beginning, and have given such data about them (age, profession and county) as I could glean, so that one can judge of the character of the assembly; n. d. indicates that I have no information

Voted for Union on March 27 (0. S.), 1918

    • Alexandri, Neculae : 60, journalist, Hotin
    • Alistar-Balan, Elena: 42, doctor, Akkerman
    • Buzdugan, Ion: 30, teacher, Baltz
    • Buiuk, Ilarion: 27, farmer, Orhei
  1. Bivol, Neculae : 33, farmer, Kishineff
    • Budishtean, Ignatie : 30, farmer, Baltz
  2. Barca, Teodor : 24, teacher, Soroca
    • Bosie-Codreanu, Neculae : 32, engineer, Hotin
    • Botnarciuk, Shtefan: 43, farmer, Baltz; Ukrainian
    • Buruiana, Gheorghe : 33, coop. official, Kishineff
  3. Ba,rca, Teodosie : 23, farmer, Kishineff
  4. Bogos, Vlad: 24, student, Kishineff
  5. Bodescu, Vlad: 50, lawyer, Kishineff
    • Baltaga, Alegandru : 55, priest, Orhei
    • Valutza, Ion: 24, student, Baltz
    • Grosu, Neculae : 27, student, Kishineff
    • Gafencu, Vasile : 30, farmer, Baltz
  6. Galitzky, Simion : n. d.
  7. Ghenzul, Vasile : 35, civil service, Kishineff (?)
  8. Ga,ina,, Andrei: 33, farmer, Orhei
    • Gropa, Alegandru : 38, coop. official, Baltz
    • Dragomir, Dumitru : 28, farmer, Akkerman
  9. Dutkiewicz, Felix: n. d. ; Pole
  10. Dron, Dimitrie : 25, student, Baltz
    • Epuri, Boris; 36, civil service, Baltz
    • Erhan, Pantelimon: 34, professor, Bender
    • Zubac, Vitalie : 23, army officer, Ismail
    • Ignatiuc, Ion: 25, farmer, Kishineff (?)
    • Inculetz, Ion: 35, professor, Kishineff
    • Ioncu, Teofil : 32, civil service, Orhei
    • Crihan, Anton: 25, student, Baltz
    • Creanga, Ion: 24, teacher, Bender
    • Chiriac, Afanasie: 27, farmer, Bender
    • Ca,raush, Dumitru : 25, student, Soroca
    • Codreanu, Ion: 39, farmer, Soroca
    • Cazacliu, Grigorie : 26, student, Soroca
    • Caraiman, Anton: 38, farmer, Orhei
    • Cocarla, Pavel: 24, artisan, Orhei
    • Costin, Ion: 35, lawyer, Kishineff
    • Chiorescu, Vlad : 30, coop. official, Kishineff
    • Cazacliu, Ion: 48, civil service, Soroca
  11. Cazacliu, Vlad : 29, student, Soroca
  12. Lashcu, Vasile : 60, journalist, Kishineff
  13. Mamaliga, Neculae : 38, gardener, Kishineff
  14. Minciuna, Mihail: 32, farmer, Orhei
    • Morariu, Auatolie : 23, farmer, Hotin
    • Morariu, Alegandru: 37, farmer, Hot1H
    • Marza, Dimitrie : 23, teacher, Hotin
    • Mare, Gheorghe : 36, professor, Akkerman
  15. Maculetzcu, Mihail: 56, farmer, Orhei
  16. Marchitan, Dimitrie : 32, farmer, Baltz
    • Neaga, Teodor : 37, professor, Kishineff
    • Nastasa, Gheorghe : 22, teacher, Soroca
    • Osoian, Constantin: 32, farmer, Baltz
    • Pa,ntea, Gherman : 24, teacher, Baltz
  17. Mandrescu, Vasile: 29, farmer, Orhei
    • Pelivan, Ion: 40, lawyer, Baltz
    • Palii, Eftimie : 37, gardener, Soroca
    • PasCa,lutza., Ion: 25, soldier, Baltz
    • Picior-Mare, Petru: 30, civil service, Baltz
    • Sinicliu, Elefterie: 22, farmer, Orhei
    • Suruceanu, Neculae : 28, army officer, Kishineff
    • Silistraru, Tim.: 23, army officer, Bender
    • Zbierea, Kiril : 27, surveyor, Cahul
    • Sacara, Nicolae: 24, professor, Kishineff
    • Scobioala, Andrei: 32, professor, Baltz
    • Spinei, Kiril: 34, farmer, Soroca
  18. Stavriu, Gheorghe : 35, farmer, Cahul
    • Suruceanu, Teodor: 52, farmer, Kishineff
    • Tudor, Gheorghe : 33, teacher, Baltz
    • Tudos, Ion: 33, farmer, Baltz
    • Turcuman, Grigore: 26, farmer, Soroca
    • Uncu, Teodor: 34, civil service, Orhei
    • Halippa, Pantelimon: 34, journalist, Soroca
  19. Hertza, Teodor : n. d.
    • Tzurcan, Leonid: 23, civil service, Kishineff
    • Tzantzu, Vasile : 35, teacher, Kishineff
    • Cernautzan, Neculae : 26, soldier, Hotin
    • Ciornei, Neculae: 25, farmer, Cahul
    • Cijevschi, Vasile : 37, army officer, Bender
    • Ciorascu, Vasile : 31, farmer, Kishineff
  20. Cernof, Nicolae : n. d.
  21. Sholtuz, Nicolae : 60, farmer, Soroca
  22. Stere, Constantin: 54, professor, Soroca
    • Munteanu, Zamfir : n. d.
  23. Sucevan, Iacov; n., d,

Voted against Union

  1. Balamez, Shtefan: 35, civil service, Kishineff; Bulgarian
  2. Osmolovsky, Arcadie : n. d.; Ukrainian
  3. Starenki, Mihail : n. d.; Ukrainian

Refrained from Voting

    • Almendingher, Philipp: 50, farmer, Akkerman ; German
    • Bacsan, Zaharia: 49, farmer, Baltz
  1. Buciushcan, Gavril : 29, teacher, Orhei
    • Budnicenko, Nikitza: 36, farmer, Baltz; Ukrainian
    • Brinici, Gheorghe: 30, farmer, Baltz; Ukrainian
  2. Vizitiu, Eftimie : 37, farmer, Soroca
    • Gherman, Isac : 60, lawyer, Kishineff ; Hebrew
  3. Garbuz (Harbuz), Ioan: 31, civil service, Kishineff
    • Grubsky, Andrei: Kishineff; Ukrainian
  4. Diaconovici, Dragomir : n. d. 11.* Dumitrashcu, Ion: 28, farmer, Orhei
  5. Donico-Iordakesco, Serghie; Kishineff
  6. Corali (Coval ? ), Vasile : n. d.; Ukrainian
    • Curdinovsky, Vasile: 46, professor, Poltava
  7. Krivorukoff, Ivan: 42, workman, Bender; Russian
    • Kenigschatz, Eugen: 58, lawyer, Kishineff; Hebrew
  8. Cuncev, Petre : 47, farmer; Bulgarian
  9. Culava, Alexe: 43, farmer, Ismail
  10. Kiriloff, Teodor : 37, lawyer, Ismail (?) ; Bulgarian
  11. Lichtmann, Samuel; 60, civil service; Hebrew
  12. von Loesch, Alexander: n. d.; German
  13. Luneff, Vladimir: 39, professor; Russian
  14. Moldovan, Teodor : n. d.
    • Misircoff, Cristo: 43, professor,. Bolgrad; Bulgarian
    • Nagorneac, Iacov: 39, farmer, Hotin; Ukrainian
    • Nikitiuk, Teodor: 35, surveyor, Cahul; Ukrainian
  15. Popa, Ion: 28, farmer, Baltz
  16. Ponomareff, Gheorghe : n. d.
  17. Poliatinciuk, Petre : 36, civil service, Podolia; Ukrainian
  18. Slutski, Moise; 62, doctor, Kishineff (?) ; Hebrew
  19. Savenko, Mihail; n. d.; Ukrainian
  20. Tziganko, Vladimir: 31, engineer; Russian
    • Iurcu, Constantin; 34, farmer, Hotin
  21. Manitzin, Petre; 35, teacher; Russian
  22. Mildov (Maldoc?), Dimitrie; n. d.; Bulgarian
  23. Greculoff, Alexandru : n. d.; Russian

Absent from this Session

  1. Bajbeuk-Melicoff: 45, surveyor, Orhei; Armenian
  2. Ghertza (Hertza), Ioan; 34, farmer, Kishineff
    • Corobcean, Teodor : 37, coop. official, Soroca
  3. Landau, Gutman: 40, civil service; Hebrew
  4. Novacoff, Anton: n. d.; Bulgarian
  5. Rugina, Anton: n. d.
  6. Sirbu, Gheorghe ; n. d.
  7. Savciuc, Kalistrat : n. d.; Ukrainian
    • Stanevici, Teodor : 51, judge, Kishineff ; Russian
  8. Tzurcan, Alexandru: 32, farmer, Soroca
  9. Ceornega, Ion: 40, farmer, Ismail
  10. Steinberg (Sch6nberg?), Mendel: n. d.; Hebrew
  11. Tcepciu (?), Gheorghe : n. d.



For a day or two, Kishineff gave itself up to celebration; but then the Diet again took up its labors. […]The Council met with greater difficulties in other matters. Russian functionaries and officials of all kinds declined to serve under the new government[…]. No one could realize that the Russian Empire had really vanished; and there was hope in the minds of many Russians, just as with the Hungarians in Transylvania, that the Peace Conference would refuse to recognize Roumanian overlordship.

The resultant confusion was endless. The Council made overtures to the Russian lawyers and judges, to continue in a transition regime and clear up the dockets; but the majority crossed the Dniester and waited patiently for the restoration of Russian rule, so that the Council had to establish a complete new judiciary from quite inadequate material. Gendarmes and police had to be improvised from Bessarabia itself and the Old Kingdom, under prefects whom they tried to choose from non-partisan quarters, but who were not “ of the career,” as most of those now in Bessarabia are proud to boast that they are. Furthermore, control of these matters was taken out of the hands of the Council through the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest (see “Greater Roumania,” chapters XVI-XVII), which laid Bessarabia under requisition for the Central Powers; this necessitated military control, martial law, censorship, etc., under the Roumanian Gen. Vaitoianu, later Prime Minister, who was charged with carrying out the burdensome requisitions. As usually happens in a Bessarabian crisis, there was a drought; as everywhere, people drew unfavorable comparisons with the good old days under the Russian Empire, not realizing that the times themselves were out of joint.

No wonder that discontent was widespread, and that blame for the hard times was laid upon the Moldavian leaders of the Diet, and the Roumanians. The Mayor of Kishineff, A. C. Schmidt, led the malcontents; he was replaced, as was the Communal Council, elected in the wild days of 1917, when all Russian soldiers who happened to be in Kishineff were allowed to vote. The Council of Directors General also abolished the Provincial Zemstvo, as an anachronism in the new governmental structure, and introduced the Roumanian judicial system. This was all in the inevitable evolution of the situation, but staggered conservative Bessarabians, who had never taken the Diet seriously, and who had not dreamed as yet that Bessarabia might really have started on a path leading away from Russia. A number of earnest supporters of autonomy united with Russians of various political beliefs in protests against one or other of the actions of the Roumanians; these will be found in the booklet entitled “The Roumanian Occupation in Bessarabia: Documents,” of the “Publications of the Bessarabian Delegation,” presented to the Peace Conference in Paris in 1919 by MM. Krupensky and Schmidt. The more important of these documents are: the minutes of a meeting of the Kishineff Justices of the Peace held Oct. 21, 1918, protesting against the promulgation by royal decree of several fundamental changes in the judicial procedure in Bessarabia; these included the substitution of Roumanian for Russian in the courts, the abolition of the Russian position of J. P. and the substitution of a new class of assistant judges; appointment of judges by the Crown in place of election; power of the Crown to remove judges; and insistence upon taking the oath of allegiance to Roumania as a condition to retention in office of the present judges, the latter being perhaps the most repugnant stipulation to many of them.

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